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2004.06.06

国際捜査共助法が改正されて何が変わるのか?

 日本とアメリカ合衆国の捜査当局の協力関係を進めるための「日米刑事共助条約」の批准に伴う「国際捜査共助・組織的犯罪処罰法改正案」が6月3日の衆院本会議で可決、成立した(MSN-Mainichi INTERACTIVE)。

 これは、昨年8月に、日本とアメリカ合衆国との間で、「日米刑事共助条約」を締結したことを受けて、国際捜査共助法(昭和55年5月29日法律第69号)を改正する必要があることから、今通常国会に改正案が提出されていたものである。

 今回の改正で、大きく変わった点は、条約締結国から日本が共助要請を受けた場合には、外交ルートを通さずに、法務大臣が直接に受理できることと、双方の国内法で犯罪として処罰されていなければならないという「双罰性」の要件を満たさなくても捜査共助が可能とする特例を設けた点であり、これによって、捜査共助手続に要する時間を数週間程度短縮できる見通しだと言われている(大分合同新聞社ニュース)。なお、これ以外にも、条約締結国が自国の裁判の証人として日本国内にいる受刑者の移送を請求できる「受刑者証人移送制度」も新設している。

 今回の改正の中で、特に問題があると考えられるのは、「双罰性」の要件を緩和したという点である。
 これまで、国際捜査共助法では、相手国から捜査共助の要請が日本に対してなされる場合に、その捜査の対象となる犯罪について、相手国でも日本でも、同様に犯罪として処罰されていることが必要であった。これを双罰性(双方処罰)の要件と呼んでいる。

 これは、日本の捜査機関が、日本国内では犯罪とならない行為について捜査をすることによって、捜査の対象となった被疑者である日本国民の人権が侵害されることを防ごうとするものであり、日本の主権を守るとともに、日本国民の人権を守るために不可欠の原則である。

 ところが、昨年8月に締結された日米刑事共助条約では、捜査の中で強制捜査(逮捕、勾留、捜索・差押、検証)については、従来通り、「双罰性」の要件を要求するが、任意捜査(尾行など)については、「双罰性」の要件を不要とした。

 そして、これは、以前にも触れたが、サイバー犯罪条約の批准に伴う法整備で今通常国会に提案されている「犯罪の国際化及び組織化並びに情報処理の高度化に対処するための刑法等の一部を改正する法律案」の中の保全要請制度の新設の提案と密接に関係している。

 今回の提案では、保全要請制度は、裁判官の令状に基づく強制捜査ではなく、任意捜査として提案されており、それ故に、要請を受けたプロバイダー等もこれを拒否することができることになっている(もっとも、我が国ではこのように「任意」と言っても事実上強制に等しい効果を持つことが予想されるので、あまり違いはないかもしれない)。

 例えば、児童ポルノを自分のコンピュータのハードディスクに保存していることが、相手国(例えばアメリカ合衆国)では犯罪になるとして、その捜査のために、日本の捜査機関に対して、通信履歴の保全要請をするように捜査協力を求められる可能性がある。

 そうすると、これまでの国際捜査共助法では、日本では、児童ポルノ処罰法によって、単純所持は処罰されないので(今通常国会の改正を経てもこの点は変わらなかった)、このような捜査共助は拒否されることになっていた。
 ところが、改正後の国際捜査共助法によると、このような捜査共助を拒否することはできないことになってしまう。これは非常に大きな問題であると言わなければならない。

 日本ではおよそ犯罪とならない行為について、日本国民は、他の国の捜査機関の要請を受けた日本の捜査機関によって任意捜査が行われることによって、通信の自由などの人権が侵害されるおそれがあるということになる。しかも、これは日本の主権にもかかわる問題であるはずである。

 国際捜査共助法改正については、おそらくほとんどの国民が知らない間に成立したと思われる。
 しかしながら、この改正によって、これまでは認められなかった外国の捜査機関からの捜査共助が行われるようになり、多くの国民にとって見知らぬ間に自分の身辺を嗅ぎ回られるような事態が発生するかもしれないのであり、私たちは、いつこのような事態になるかもしれないことを、これからは意識して生活ていかなければならないのである。

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Comments

う~む・・・・・。
国際犯罪の代表格でもある、麻薬所持だと問答無用で死刑という国も少なくないですよね?
なんか入口(捜査)の手続きだけを変えて、出口(刑罰など)について検討していない(出来ない?)のは実際にはとてもやっかいな事態を引き起こしそうですね。

Posted by: 酔うぞ | 2004.06.06 at 04:43 PM

酔うぞ さん

 コメントありがとうございました。
 麻薬所持云々は、例えば、中国で逮捕されてしまうと、死刑もありうるということになりますね。現に、第1審で死刑判決を受けた日本人がいるという報道がありました。

 国際捜査共助法は、とりあえず、酔うぞさんの言う「入口」の問題だけを扱っていることは確かです。その後の刑罰の問題などについては国によって様々です。日本は、以前から世界的に見て刑罰は軽いと言われてきましたが、現在、法制審議会刑事法部会で、重罰化するための諮問を検討しているところです。
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