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2005.04.25

これからの刑事司法の傾向を是認できるか?

 4月18日から25日までの日程で、タイのバンコクにおいて、国連の第11回犯罪防止会議が開催されている(livedoorニュースの記事)。会議に、NGOとしてオブザーバーで参加した日本弁護士連合会の代表の1人として、私も、20日から23日まで、この会議に初めて参加した。

 国連犯罪防止会議は、1955年以降、5年ごとに開催されており、国際的・国内的の両レベルにおける犯罪防止ならびに犯罪者処遇の理論と実践に重大な役割を果たしてきた会議である(桐蔭横浜大学の竹村典良助教授による前回の会議の報告を参照)。

 最近は、会議が開催される毎に、1つの宣言を採択することになっており、今回の会議でも、最終日の4月25日に、「バンコク宣言」が採択される予定である。CONGRESS


 今回の会議は、アジアで開催される国連犯罪防止会議ということで、日本政府は大変に力を入れており、松尾邦弘・検事総長をはじめ多数の代表団を派遣していた。

 プレス・リリースによると、23日のハイレベルの会議(政府関係者以外には非公開)で、松尾検事総長は、次のように語ったとされている。日本の立場がよく分かるので、以下に紹介しておきたい(私の拙い仮訳)。

 越境的な組織犯罪は増加しており、テロリズムは、日々の脅威となっている。情報技術の進歩は、生活水準を高めるとともに新しい犯罪を発生させている。効果的にこれらの問題を扱うために、国際的に協調することは極めて重要である。国境を越えた組織犯罪について、日本は、関連する法案を制定し、捜査当局は麻薬取引とマネーロンダリング(不正資金浄化)のような組織犯罪に対する法律を実施している。2004年には、人身売買について行動計画を採択している。  テロリズムは、世界の平和と法の支配に対する深刻な挑戦を提起したため、国際社会は、一致団結した態度をとる必要がある。核兵器テロの抑圧のための最近なされた国際協定の採択を歓迎する。日本は、既に、すべての12の国際的なテロに対する条約と議定書を履行している。日本は、2004年にテロ対策に関する行動計画を採択し、埋め込み式のチップに生体情報を登録可能なパスポートの導入のような法案の制定を推進している。  コンピュータに対する攻撃の多くは、コンピュータ・ウイルスとコンピュータ・ネットワークを濫用する犯罪であるが、それは増加している。サイバー犯罪が、国境を越えて容易に犯されるようになって以来、各国が協調してこれらの犯罪を取り組むことが不可欠となった。日本は、欧州評議会のサイバー犯罪条約を締結するための実体法と手続法の改正案を提出している。日本の国会は、2004年4月に、サイバー犯罪条約の批准を承認している。

 今回の国連犯罪防止会議で取り上げられたテーマは多岐に亘っている。組織犯罪、テロリズム、サイバー犯罪、マネーロンダリングを含む経済犯罪、修復的司法、被害者問題などである。
 会議の最後に採択される予定の「バンコク宣言」では、これらの問題について、国家が協調して取り組んでいくことが確認される予定である。

 ただ、会議に参加して各国の発言などを聞いていて気になったのは、これらの犯罪に対する規制一辺倒の論調が支配していたという点である。
 特に、今回の会議では、組織犯罪をテロリズムに直接結びつけて、両者を表裏一体のもののように捉えた上で、それに対する各国の協調による厳しい規制の必要性が叫ばれたという点に特徴がある。そのため、テロリズムとは直接関係がないような組織犯罪に対しても厳しい規制が必要であるかのような議論がなされていたように感じられた。

 国連は、一方で、人権保障に関わる様々な条約や基準規則(Standards and Norms)を制定してきている。重要なのは、いかに犯罪防止のために強力な規制が必要であるとしても、その取締りの過程で、市民の人権を侵害することがあってはいけないのであり、取締りの要請と人権保障の要請との間で調整が不可欠であるという点である。

 ところが、国連犯罪防止会議が、徐々に国家間による会議に変質してくる中で、法執行機関による取締りの論理だけがまかり通るようになり、人権保障という観点が片隅に追いやられつつあることが強く感じられたのである。CONGRESS2


 それは、最近、国連犯罪防止会議に、人権NGOがあまり参加しなくなってきたこととも関連する。最近の国連犯罪防止会議では、NGOがあちこちで排除され、宣言案の審議に関する情報提供もなされないために、世界的に有名なNGOが参加しなくなっているという現状がある。それは、今回のバンコクでの犯罪防止会議でもその傾向はより強まっていると感じた。そのため、法執行機関による取締り一辺倒の議論に異論を唱える存在が少なくなっている。

 犯罪の最近の傾向(トレンド)は、上述したとおりであり、それに対して、各国が力を合わせて取り組んでいくことが必要であることは間違いがない。ただ、規制だけを掲げて、人権保障を無視することがあってはならない。その意味では、もっと人権NGOが国連犯罪防止会議に参加したり、宣言案の審議に関する情報が提供され、意見を述べるなどその審議に間接的であるにせよ関与できる仕組みを作ることが不可欠であると感じた。

 いずれにせよ、バンコクで開催された第11回の国連犯罪防止会議は、現在の刑事司法の国際的な動向を決定づける重要な会議であることは確かである。ところが、日本においては、その存在も含め、ほとんどマスコミで報じられていないのは極めて残念であるとともに、疑問に感じざるを得ない。

【Today's Back Music】
 渡辺香津美/monday blues(BVCJ-7423)
  ギタリスト渡辺香津美の1974年録音のセカンド・アルバム。今聴いても全く古さを感じない瑞々しい演奏であり、久しぶりに聴きたくなったので聴いてみたが、飽きが来ない演奏である。

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竹村先生は、松蔭横浜大学ではなくて桐蔭横浜大学ですね。

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