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2007.03.04

刑事裁判に犯罪被害者や遺族が直接参加する制度を認めることができるか?

 法制審議会は、本年2月7日、犯罪被害者や遺族が、刑事裁判に直接参加する被害者参加制度の要綱をまとめて法務大臣に答申した。

 法制審議会が答申した被害者参加制度に関する要綱は、故意の犯罪行為により人を死傷させた罪、強制わいせつ及び強姦の罪、業務上過失致死傷等の罪、逮捕及び監禁の罪並びに略取、誘拐及び人身売買の罪等の被害者等からの申し出を受けて裁判所が許可した者(この者を「被害者参加人」と呼ぶ)が、公判期日に出席すること、証人尋問をすること(弁護側の情状証人に対する反対尋問に限られる)、直接に被告人質問をすること、検察官の論告求刑の後に、求刑を含む意見陳述をすることができるというものである(これらを総称して「被害者参加制度」と呼ぶ)

 現行法上は、犯罪被害者や遺族は、あくまでも、目撃状況や被害感情を証言する証人としての立場であり、刑事裁判の当事者ではなかった。
 そのことに対する犯罪被害者や遺族の不満が高まったことから、2000年に犯罪被害者保護関連二法が成立し、訴訟記録の閲覧謄写や犯罪被害者や遺族の意見陳述が認められ、これまで運用されている。

 ところが、犯罪被害者の中でも、最も強く刑事裁判への直接参加を求めてきた全国犯罪被害者の会(あすの会)は、この内容に満足せず、全国的な署名運動を実施するなどして政府や国会議員に働きかけを続けてきた。
 このような動きを受けて、2004年12月、犯罪被害者等基本法が成立した。同法18条は、「国及び地方公共団体は、犯罪被害者等がその被害に係る刑事に関する手続に適切に関与することができるようにするため、刑事に関する手続の進捗状況等に関する情報の提供、刑事に関する手続への参加の機会を拡充するための制度の整備等必要な施策を講ずるものとする。」と規定している。

 翌2005年12月、政府は、犯罪被害者等基本計画をまとめており、上記の規定を踏まえて、「犯罪被害者等が刑事裁判に直接関与することができる制度の検討及び施策の実施」を挙げた。

 法務大臣は、これを受けて、2006年9月8日に開催された法制審議会に対して、「犯罪被害者等基本法の趣旨及び目的にかんがみ、刑事手続において、犯罪被害者等の権利利益の一層の保護を図るため、早急に法整備を行う必要があると思われるので、左記の事項に関して、その整備要綱の骨子を示されたい」と諮問し(諮問第80号)、その後、法制審議会刑事法(犯罪被害者関係)部会で合計8回の審議を経て、今回の答申がなされるに至ったものである。

 犯罪被害者や遺族が、刑事裁判に出廷して検察官の横に座り(要綱では明確にされていないが、そのようになることが予想される)、証人尋問、被告人質問、求刑を含む意見陳述を行うことによって、日本の刑事裁判は大きく変質することになる。

 それは、刑事裁判の場に、犯罪被害者や遺族の「怒り」を持ち込むことを認め、その結果、刑事裁判が「闘いの場」となって、冷静で公平な審理が期待できなくなることを意味している。
 特に、2009年から開始される裁判員制度においても、被害者参加制度が実施されることから、普通の市民である裁判員に強い影響を与え、混乱を招くおそれがある。
 ところが、法務省は、裁判員制度の実施よりも半年前倒しで、被害者参加制度を実施しようとしている。

 欧米諸国と比較して、我が国の刑事事件の被告人の防御権は必ずしも十分に保障されておらず、99.9%というすさまじい有罪率に支えられた刑事裁判の現状を踏まえると、犯罪被害者や遺族が直接参加することによって、より一層、冤罪が増えたり、更なる重罰化が進むことは避けられない。

 本来であれば、まず、刑事裁判の現状を根本的に見直し、まず、被告人の権利をきちんと保障することが不可欠であり、犯罪被害者や遺族に対して、国がまず行うべきは、経済的支援や精神的支援の充実である。
 刑事裁判に直接参加するだけでは、犯罪被害者や遺族が完全にケアされる訳ではなく、むしろ不満が募るだけであり、精神的に苦痛を与えるかもしれないのである。

 政府は、お互いに市民同士である犯罪被害者や遺族と加害者を、直接に刑事裁判の場で対峙させ戦わせることによって、より被告人に対する厳罰化を進めるとともに、犯罪被害者や遺族に対する経済的な支援を行うことなく済まそうとしているのであり(「安上がりな刑事政策」)、犯罪被害者や遺族が政府に不満の矛先を向けないように目を逸らさせようとしていると考えられる。

 犯罪被害者や遺族が刑事裁判に直接参加する被害者参加制度を含む刑事訴訟法改正案は、3月中旬にも、第166回通常国会に上程され、政府・与党は、この通常国会での成立を目指している。
 私は、刑事裁判の現状をより悪化させる被害者参加制度には強く反対していきたい。

【Today's Back Music】
 甲斐よしひろ/10ストーリーズ(CRCP-40172)
 甲斐よしひろの新譜は、J-POPの名作のカバーアルバム。特に、女性ボーカルの曲のカバーが多いのが特徴的であり、「ハナミズキ」や「夜空ノムコウ」が気に入った。どの曲もロックしている。

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「無期懲役は期限を決めない懲役刑であって終身刑とは違う」といった誤解をよく見かけますが、これは誤りです。 無期懲役は、一生続く刑罰です。 しかし、刑務所に必ず一生いなければならないのでは反省する意欲が薄れるので、仮釈放制度(刑期途中で一定の条件を付けて仮に... [Read More]

Tracked on 2007.03.11 at 03:00 AM

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以前から気になっていたのですが、犯罪被害者や遺族らが刑事裁判に参加して被告人に直 [Read More]

Tracked on 2007.03.12 at 01:58 AM

» 甲斐バンドって? [甲斐よしひろ 甲斐バンド〜解散、ソロ、そして今]
甲斐よしひろ 甲斐バンド時代から数々のヒット曲を生み出し40代の世代に知らない人はいないくらいですよね?甲斐バンド解散後もソロ活動を経て今又新たな活動を再開鐔ワ愁鐔ス暖紊茲靴劼蹐気鵑魃騸腓垢襯屮蹈阿任 [Read More]

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