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2008.01.26

警察庁の取り調べ適正化指針について考える

 警察庁は、2008年1月24日、昨年の鹿児島県の志布志の選挙違反事件や富山県での強姦事件の再審無罪判決を受けて、「取り調べ適正化指針」(以下「指針」という)をまとめた。

 指針は、都道府県警察本部と全警察署に、捜査部門とは別に、取り調べ監督担当を総務又は警務部門に置き、容疑者逮捕前の任意捜査の段階から、取り調べ状況を把握するものとし、具体的には、取調官による(1)容疑者の体への接触、(2)ことさら不安を覚えさせるような言動、(3)一定の動作や姿勢を取るよう強く要求、(4)容疑者の尊厳を著しく害するような言動、(5)便宜供与の約束などをチェックすることを定めた。

 また、指針は、深夜や長時間の取り調べは避け、それでも取り調べをする場合には本部長か署長の事前承認が必要とすることを決めている。

 指針は、その上で、指針から逸脱する行為を確認した場合には中止させるとともに、後日、被疑者らから苦情を受けたときは、取調官への聴取や容疑者への面接を行って事実を確認し、不適正行為に対しては懲戒処分を始めとする厳正な措置を講ずるという。

 今回、警察庁が定めた指針は、昨年に相次いだ冤罪事件の中で、警察の取調べに行き過ぎがあり、虚偽の自白を強要しようとしていたことが明らかにされる中で、取り調べを可視化(録画・録音)すべきであるという世論が盛り上がる中で、可視化を阻止するための最後の抵抗と考えることができる。

 すなわち、日弁連は数年前から、警察に対しても、取り調べの全過程の可視化(録画・録音)を求めてきたし、民主党は、数年前から、取り調べの可視化を内容とする法案(刑事訴訟法一部改正案)を提出し、2007年12月には、改めて、取り調べの可視化に関する新法案を参議院に提出して攻勢を強めている。

 そのような状況の中で、既に、検察庁は、一昨年から裁判員裁判対象事件について、取り調べの一部録画の試行を開始している(もちろん、全過程の録画ではないために、色々と問題になっている)

 これに対して、取り調べの可視化に対して全面的に反対してきた警察に対しては、新聞の社説を含め、世論は完全に取調室の「密室性」を批判して、裁判員裁判を前に、警察においても、取り調べの可視化を実現することを求める声が高まってきた。

 このような動きの中で、おそらく、警察庁は、このままでは、世論や政治の動きに堪えられないと判断したと思われるが、昨年12月に、有識者で警察の取り調べのあり方について議論する懇談会を設置することを決め、同年12月12日に第1回の会議を開き、指針を定めた後も、懇談会を開いて、指針に盛り込まれた具体的な内容について、再度検討することを考えているという。

 しかしながら、今回の指針の内容は、ある意味ではどれを見ても当然と言えるような内容であり、これで取り調べにおける自白強要の現実が果たしてどれだけ改善されるかには、大きな疑問が残る。
 監督機関を新設すると言っても、所詮は警察の内部組織である以上、「身内」をかばう可能性は否定できない。

 結局、取り調べにおける虚偽の自白強要を根本的になくすためには、取り調べの全過程の録画・録音しか有効な手段はない。

 警察は、それを逃げているだけであり、そこには、取り調べの「密室性」を維持し、自白を強要することが可能な捜査手段を手放したくないという本音が透けて見えている。その根底には、「自白は証拠の王」とする自白偏重主義がある。

 取り調べの可視化は世界の潮流であり、お隣の韓国でも、2008年1月日に施行された新刑事訴訟法で、検察官作成の供述調書は、取り調べの録画で任意性を立証されない限り、証拠能力を得られなくなっている。

 法廷において、取り調べを担当した刑事と被告人が「水掛け論」になって、結局、自白調書が採用されて有罪が認定されるという現在の日本の刑事裁判のあり方は、非科学的であるとともに前近代的で野蛮である。すぐにでも改められなければならない。

 その観点からすると、警察庁の今回の指針は、自白強要防止の観点からすると、その内容は極めて不十分かつお粗末である。

 警察庁の指針については、市民から徹底的に批判して、これでは不十分であり、取り調べの全過程の可視化以外に、取り調べを適正化し、自白の強要を防止できないことを強く訴えていく必要がある。

 取り調べの厳しさに負けて、虚偽の自白をさせられて冤罪に陥れられる被告人が、今後、一人も出ないようにするためには、取り調べの全過程の可視化を一日も早く実現させなければならない。

【Today's Back Music】
 Bass Talk/Love Letter(FNCJ-1002)
  鈴木良雄(b)をリーダーとし、野力奏一(p.key)、井上信平(fl)、岡部洋一(per)をメンバーとするBass Talkと名付けられたバンドの初のフルアルバム。非常に素朴でピュアなサウンドに癒される。何度聴いても飽きない完成度の高いサウンドである。

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» 「米軍再編と憲法改正」勉強会から [天下の大悪法・裁判員制度徹底糾弾!!高野善通の雑記帳]
  まず再度ご案内を。2月1日(金)18時30分から憲法フェスティバル特別版を開催いたします。ジェームス三木氏、松元ヒロ氏、横井久美子氏の豪華ゲストの出演、憲法フェスティバル本番にも匹敵するくらいの大イベ...... [Read More]

Tracked on 2008.01.26 at 10:05 PM

» 「米軍再編と憲法改正」勉強会から [天下の大悪法・裁判員制度徹底糾弾!!高野善通の雑記帳]
  まず再度ご案内を。2月1日(金)18時30分から憲法フェスティバル特別版を開催いたします。ジェームス三木氏、松元ヒロ氏、横井久美子氏の豪華ゲストの出演、憲法フェスティバル本番にも匹敵するくらいの大イベ...... [Read More]

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» 身内に「監督」させることで「全面可視化」要求をかわそうとする警察 [ろーやーずくらぶ]
 警察庁は、24日、「警察捜査における取り調べ適正化指針」を発表し、取調べ状況を監視・監督する専門部署の新設などを提言しました。朝日新聞 東京新聞その1 その2  まったく、留置部門を新設して、代用監獄批判をかわし、自白強要の温床を残した歴史が繰り返さ...... [Read More]

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