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2008.03.26

被疑者取調べ可視化をめぐる動向

 被疑者取調べの録音・録画をめぐって、警察・検察当局で動きが見られた。

 2008年3月14日、与党である自民党の「新時代の捜査のあり方プロジェクトチーム」が、「真に信頼される捜査の確立に向けて-取調べに関する中間提言-」をまとめて、警察における取調べの録音・録画の試行を提言し、公明党の法務部会「これからの捜査の在り方検討会」の「あるべき取調べの適正化についての提言」において、同様に警察における取調べの録音・録画を2008年度可及的速やかに実施し、2年以内に検証の上本格実施することを求める内容をまとめ、これを受けて、同日、警察庁は、取調べの一部の録音・録画を実施することを決めている。

 これまで、取調べの録音・録画を頑なに拒んできた警察庁にとっては思い切った方針転換であるが、鹿児島の選挙違反事件や富山の氷見事件などのえん罪事件が続発したことから、警察としては、立法化を阻止するためのぎりぎりの選択であったと考えられる。

 他方、最高検察庁は、2008年3月21日、「取調べの録音・録画の試行の検証について」と題する報告書を発表し、2006年8月から東京地方検察庁で、2007年3月からは東京地方検察庁に加えて比較的規模の大きい全国の13の地方検察庁において、取調べの録音・録画の試行を実施し、2007年12月までに実施された170件について検証した結果を発表した。

 そこでは、結論として、「裁判員裁判において任意性やこれに密接に関連する特信性等が争われた場合に,裁判員も含めた裁判体が任意性等の存否を判断するために有効な証拠であるのみならず,任意性等の有無を効率的に立証する手段になるものと評価できる」とした上で、2008年4月から2009年3月末まで本格的な試行を実施することとし、「取調べの録音・録画を行うことにより,取調べの真相解明機能が害されたり,関係者の保護や協力確保に支障を生じるおそれ等がある場合や,同録音・録画の実施に障害がある場合を除いて,取調べの機能を損なわない範囲内で,検察官による被疑者の取調べのうち相当と認められる部分の録音・録画を行うことを試行する」と結論付けている。

 その結果、被疑者が全面否認している場合や暴力団など組織犯罪を除き、原則として裁判員制度の対象事件全てで取調べの録音・録画が実施されるようになり、年間で2000件程度が対象となる見通しであると伝えられている。検察庁が取調べの録音・録画の範囲を拡大することにしたのも、立法化を阻止するための狙いがあると考えられる。
 もっとも、検察庁による試行でも、あくまでも、その日の取調べの一部の録音・録画であり、従来の試行が10~15分程度だったものが、30分程度に伸びるという程度であり(被疑者の供述を途中で打ち切らない方針ではある)、しかし、まだまだ極めて不十分であることは否めない(日弁連の「自民党及び公明党の提言に対する日弁連コメント」を参照)。

 日弁連は、かねてから、被疑者取調べの適正化という観点から、海外の情勢も踏まえて、被疑者取調べの全過程の録音・録画を求めてきた(日弁連は、取調べの「録画・録音」を主張しているが、ここでは「録音・録画」としておく)

 これに対し、最高検察庁は、2006年5月に、被疑者取調べの録音・録画の試行を発表したが、その目的は、裁判員裁判における被告人の自白の任意性立証するための方策の一環であるとして、あくまでも、任意性の効果的・効率的な立証のために実施するものと位置づけて試行を行ってきた。今回の最高検察庁の報告書は、その方向性を確認するとともに、日弁連の主張する全過程の録画・録音は取調べの真相解明機能を阻害するものであるとして強く否定し、今後も取調べの一部のみの録音・録画を実施する方針を明確にしたものである。

 民主党は、2007年12月に、参議院に対して、取調べ可視化を求める刑事訴訟法一部改正案を提案しているが、衆参のねじれ現象のために、その法案が衆議院で可決されて成立する見込みはない状況の中で、今回は、不完全ではあるが、運用によって、警察での取調べの一部の録音・録画の試行が開始され、検察庁での試行の範囲が拡大されようとしている。

 しかしながら、海外の例を見れば、一部の録音・録画では被疑者取調べの任意性の問題を完全に解決することはできず、いずれは全過程の録音・録画に向かわざるを得ないことは歴史の必然である。
 法律によらない中途半端な取調べの一部の録音・録画を批判して、今後も、取調べの全過程の録音・録画を求め続けなければならない。

【Today's Back Music】
 柴咲コウ/Single Best(UPCH-20082)
 女優でもある柴咲コウのシングルのベスト盤。曲毎に歌い方を巧みに変えるやり方は中島みゆきを思わせるところもある。ようやく出たベスト盤だが、期待以上に良かった。

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» つまみ食い可視化で逃げ切りをねらう検察を許すな!/自民小委員... [ろーやーずくらぶ]
 最高検察庁は、21日、「取調べの録音・録画の試行の検証について」を公表し、現在行っている「つまみ食い可視化」を裁判員対象事件に「拡大」することを決めました。朝日新聞  しかし、これほど志布志事件、氷見事件などのえん罪が示す教訓をわきまえないものはあり...... [Read More]

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