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2009.02.28

東京江東区OL殺害事件から刑事事件の公判審理のあり方を考える

 東京都江東区のマンションで会社員の女性が殺害されてバラバラにされた事件について、殺人、死体遺棄などの罪に問われた被告人について、2009年2月18日、東京地裁(平出喜一裁判長)は、無期懲役判決を言い渡した。

 この事件は、被害者一名の事件であったが、検察官は死刑を求刑し、その公判審理においても検察官の立証方法は従来とは大きく異なり、裁判員裁判を強く意識し、それを先取りしたものとして、マスコミでも大きく報道された。

 そこで、今後の刑事裁判のあり方を考える上で極めて重要であると考えられるこの事件について振り返ってみたい。

 まず、この事件は、公判前整理手続を実施して争点・証拠を整理した上で、2009年1月13日の初公判から計6日間の連日的開廷により、集中的に審理した。 被告人が事実を争っていなかったとはいえ、死刑求刑がされる事件の審理としては極めて短い期間で審理が行われた。

 もちろん、裁判員制度が実施されたら、裁判員の負担軽減のために、文字通り連日開廷し、一週間以内の審理で判決が言い渡されることになるだろう。それにしても、死刑か無期かという事件でそんなに短期間に集中審理して結論を急ぐ必要はあるのだろうか。

 東京地裁は、この事件の審理終結時に、「慎重に審理したい」として、判決日を当初予定していた日よりも一週間遅らせた。市民に参加を求める裁判員 裁判であれば、こうした急な日程変更は事実上困難であり、職業裁判官であっても即断を躊躇してしまうような事例が裁判員裁判対象事件にはあること(死刑・無期を含む重大事件に限って裁判員裁判対象事件とされているため)を改めて浮き彫りにしたと言える。

 次に、検察官立証においては、死刑を強く求める遺族の意向を受けて、犯行の残虐性を明らかにすることに精力を注ぎ、被告人質問を4日間も実施した。
 検察官は、殺害から死体損壊に至るまでの状況を、被告人に法廷で語らせる方法を採り、検察官の質問は、女性の首を包丁で刺した時の感触や、手足を切断した順序まで、一つ一つ微に入り細に入り行われた。
 検察官は、公判において、肉片の写真や、マネキンを使った遺体切断時の再現画像を、裁判員裁判のため法廷に二台設置された六五インチの大型モニターに映 し出して被告人の犯行の特異性・残虐性を強調した。あまりの生々しさに耐えきれなくなった遺族が号泣して退廷したほか、顔を背ける傍聴人も続出したとい う。
 ただ、この立証方法については、途中で、弁護人から「被告人の人格を破壊する」と異議を申し立て、検察官もこれを受け入れて、供述調書の朗読に立証の方法を変更している。

 また、検察官は、遺族や知人が被害者との思い出を語る証人尋問にも多くの時間を使い、遺族の証人尋問の際には、大型ディスプレーに、被害者の七五 三や大学時代の留学のときなどに撮った50枚以上の写真や動画をスライドショー的に次々に映し出して、被害者の無念を強調した。

 最後に、検察官の論告の際には、検察官が、平易な文章で述べ、傍聴席内の右前部に設置された遺族席の近くに立ち、時折、涙ながらに論告を読み上げ、遺族が法廷で語った表現を引用して、被告人を「人間の顔をした悪魔」と断罪した。

 今回の検察官の立証方法は極めて異例であり、「視覚」や「心」に訴えた立証方法は真実を追求する場の公判が「ワイドショー化」する懸念もあるとの指摘を受けている。

 報道によると、東京地検は、当初、この公判を裁判員裁判の「モデル」と位置づけ、「裁判員にも法廷で見てもらうというメッセージを込めた」と説明 していたが、その後、「裁判員制度は関係なく、立証上必要があった」と修正したという。検察庁は、明らかに、裁判員裁判実施前であるのに、その「モデル」 と位置づけて特異な立証方法を実施したが、多くの批判を浴びたことから、やむなくその本音を隠したと見るべきであろう。

 2009年2月18日に、最高検察庁が発表した「裁判員裁判における検察の基本姿勢」 という文書では、これらを受けて、「写真については、せい惨な場面が写されている場合もあるが、適正妥当な事実認定のため及び量刑のためには、証拠調請求 して裁判員にも展示しなければならない場合がある」としながら、「いきなりこのような写真を見せられて気分が悪くなるなどして職務の続行が困難となる裁判 員もいる可能性があるので、その心理的負担も考慮し、検察官としては、あらかじめ、せい惨な写真も含まれていることを裁判員に告げた上で展示すべきであろ う。また、このような写真を示すに当たっては、被害者等の心情に配慮し、必要に応じ、例えば、傍聴席からは見えないように回覧等の方法で展示するなどの工 夫をすべきである。」(同55頁)と述べている。

 現在、裁判員裁判に向けて、最高裁判所も最高検察庁も、裁判員が「見て、聞いて、よく分かる裁判」を目指している。今回の事件での検察官立証は、まさに、その練習の場であったのだろうが、行きすぎも甚だしい。

 ただ、結論として無期懲役判決が言い渡され、今回の検察官立証は稚拙であり、かえってマイナスに働いたとの批判も出ているところである。

 今回の公判審理において忘れられているのは、被告人の防御権であるとともに、刑事裁判において、その事件が起きた背景や原因、そし て被告人がどうしてその犯罪を犯してしまったのか(又は、犯罪を犯さなかったのか)である。その視点が完全に抜け落ちている。検察官は、ただ、今回の犯罪 がいかに残虐非道かだけを立証し、その背景や原因の究明は全くなされていない。

 また、遺族に対する証人尋問の際に、被害者の幼い頃からの50枚以上の写真や動画をスライドショーとして映し出した際に、その最後に、マンション のゴミ捨て場の写真とゴミが堆積された「夢の島」のような写真をモニターに映して尋問した点については、証拠上、ゴミ捨て場に遺体を捨てた証拠もないのに 行われたものであり、その写真は、「イメージ写真」であったが、このような証拠に基づかない写真が審理に持ち込まれて量刑資料とされるようなことがあって はならない。

 最高裁判所が最近発表した「模擬裁判の成果と課題-裁判員裁判における公判前整理手続、審理、評議及び判決並びに裁判員等選任手続のあり方」の 「はしがき」では、「もっぱら裁判員のことを念頭においたこれらの配慮が一面的になり過ぎると…真相を解明するという刑事裁判の基本的な要請や、被告人の 防御権の保障を軽視するということに繋がりかねない。」として、この点に対する「反省」を示しているようにも見えるが、極めて不十分である。

 今回の事件は、この事案について死刑か無期かが妥当かという問題だけでなく、その公判審理のあり方について大きな疑問があり、それはそのまま裁判員裁判への疑問にも繋がるものである。その意味で、この事件の公判審理のあり方について議論を深めることが必要だと考える。

【Today's Back Music】
 Boney James/Send One Your Love(UCCO1069)
  サックスの貴公子と呼ばれるボニー・ジェームスの新譜。メローなサックスを聴かせてくれる。最近は、寝る前に聴いていることが多いが、仕事しながら聴いてもいけそうな心地よいサウンドである。

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